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  • Most bleeding (or hemorrhage) is caused by trauma. There is usually a wound or a history of injury to explain why a pet is bleeding. Typically, the bleeding stops when a blood clot forms at the site of injury.

  • Many problems can lead to vomiting, some easier to diagnose than others. Simple acute vomiting with no other clinical signs may not require diagnostic testing, but if vomiting is ongoing or your pet is showing other clinical signs, then baseline diagnostic testing including complete blood count (CBC), biochemistry profile, urinalysis, and fecal testing may be recommended. Additional diagnostic testing may be required depending on the results of these tests.

  • Pets that feel weak often have difficulty getting to their feet and move slowly or unsteadily. Other signs include shaky muscles, fainting, or collapse. You may find your pet does not want to exercise, seems dull, and does not respond when you call.

  • Weight loss can be due to simple problems of feeding and nutrition, or can be due to a variety of medical conditions that result in poor digestion, decreased absorption of nutrients, or loss of nutrients from the body.

  • Weight loss can be due to simple problems of feeding and nutrition, or can be due to a variety of medical conditions that result in poor digestion, decreased absorption of nutrients, or loss of nutrients from the body.

  • Diagnosis of hyperthyroidism includes screening the hormone output of the thyroid as well as screening for other systemic disease. This is achieved by running a complete blood count, biochemistry panel, urinalysis and total T4 (tT4). In cats with signs of hyperthyroidism but with tT4 levels in the upper half of the reference range will often have their free thyroid hormone tested using a special test called equilibrium dialysis. More advanced screening for hyperthyroidism includes the t3 suppression test and advanced imaging of the thyroid called scintigraphy.

  • Diagnosis of hypothyroidism includes a complete blood count, biochemistry profile urinalysis and thyroid-related hormones. Anemia, elevated cholesterol and mild liver enzymes are supportive of a diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Assessing thyroid hormone output can be difficult as other diseases and medications can suppress blood thyroxine levels. A combination of measurements of total T4, free T4 by equilibrium dialysis, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is generally used to confirm a diagnosis. Measurements of total T4 may be used to monitor thyroid levels if your dog requires hormone replacement therapy.

  • Trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI) is a blood test that measures the amount of a pancreatic proenzyme called trypsinogen. This measurement correlates with the amount of pancreatic enzymes released into the intestine to aid in digestion. A low measurement indicates exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Concurrent pancreatitis or tests done shortly after a meal may temporarily increase this measurement to a normal value (false negative).

  • An ultrasound machine emits and receives high frequency ultrasound waves through a transducer or probe. The probe is placed over the area of interest, directing the sound waves into the body. The ultrasound waves may be transmitted through, reflected from, or absorbed by the tissues that they encounter.

  • An ultrasound examination, also known as ultrasonography, is a non-invasive imaging technique that allows internal body structures to be seen by recording echoes or reflections of ultrasonic waves.