Library

Small Mammals + Medications

  • Dexamethasone is given on and off label, by mouth or injection, to treat various inflammatory, autoimmune, and adrenal gland conditions. It can also be used off label as a diagnostic test. Common side effects include increased drinking, urination and/or appetite, dull/dry haircoat, weight gain, pot-bellied appearance, muscle weakness, panting, vomiting, or diarrhea. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it, have systemic fungal infections, diabetes, or stomach or intestinal ulcers, or are taking NSAIDs. It should not be used in rabbits or in surgical pets. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Diazepam is given by mouth, injection, or into the rectum and is used off label to treat anxiety, seizures, tense muscles, or decreased appetite. Give as directed by your veterinarian. Side effects include sleepiness, increased appetite, incoordination, weakness, agitation, drooling, and aggression. Do not give to cats by mouth, and do not use in pets that are allergic to it or other benzodiazepines, or in pets with severe liver disease. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Diazoxide is given by mouth and is used off label to treat low blood sugar associated with insulin-producing tumors of the pancreas. Give as directed by your veterinarian. Common side effects include drooling, lack of appetite, vomiting, and diarrhea. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it or thiazide diuretics, or in pets with low blood sugar due to anything other than a tumor. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Diphenhydramine is given by mouth or as an injection and is used on and off label to treat allergic reactions, motion sickness, and to induce sedation. Side effects include sleepiness, and less commonly dry mouth and gastrointestinal upset. Diphenhydramine should not be used in pets that are allergic to this medication and should be used cautiously in pets with glaucoma, enlarged prostate, thyroid or heart disease, or are lactating. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Doxycycline is an antibiotic given by mouth in the form of a tablet, capsule, or liquid, used off label to treat certain infections. Common side effects include stomach upset, sun sensitivity, and increases in liver enzymes. Serious side effects include liver failure, seizures, and trouble swallowing. Do not use in pregnant pets, and use cautiously in pets with liver disease or in young pets. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Enalapril is used on and off label and is given by mouth or injection to treat heart failure, high blood pressure, chronic kidney disease, or proteinuria. Common side effects include loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, and tiredness. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it, have an acute kidney injury, or have certain heart conditions. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Enrofloxacin is an antibiotic given by mouth or in the muscle commonly used to treat bacterial infections in cats, dogs, and off label in small mammals, birds, and reptiles. Common side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, and lack of appetite. It should not be used in growing or dehydrated pets, or in cats with kidney disease. Use cautiously in pets with seizures, liver, or kidney disease. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Fluconazole is an antifungal medication used off label in cats, dogs, and small mammals to treat fungal infections, especially those in the brain and spinal cord. It is given by mouth in the form of a tablet or liquid suspension, and is also available as an injection for hospital use. Common side effects include gastrointestinal upset such as decreased appetite, vomiting, and diarrhea but liver toxicity can also occur. It should be used with caution in pets with liver or kidney disease, or pregnant or lactating pets. If a negative reaction occurs, call your veterinary office.

  • Fludrocortisone acetate is given by mouth and is used off label to treat hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s disease) and hyperkalemia. Give as directed by your veterinarian. Side effects are uncommon but may include vomiting. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it or in lactating pets without using a milk replacer. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Flunixin meglumine is given by mouth, injection, or applied directly to the skin and is used on and off label to treat pain and inflammation in a variety of species. Give as directed by your veterinarian. Side effects include swelling at the injection site, muscle stiffness, or sweating. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it or other NSAIDs, in pets expecting to give birth within the next 2 days, or in birds. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.