The spinal cord is one of the most important and sensitive organ systems in the body. If it is damaged, the nerve cells do not regenerate but are replaced with fibrous or scar tissue. To protect it from damage, the spinal cord runs through a bony canal within the spine and is surrounded by protective bone everywhere except the junction of the vertebrae. These junctions are filled by rubber-like cushions called intervertebral discs. Degenerative disc disease causes spontaneous degeneration of the outer part of the disc, resulting in sudden disc rupture or herniation.
Distichiae can be an irritating eye problem for many dogs. The abnormally growing extra eyelashes can cause chronic discomfort to the eye and potential vision problems. A thorough eye examination, including fluorescein staining of the cornea and an assessment of the degree of tear production in the eyes, is usually necessary to assess the extent of any accompanying corneal injury and to rule out other causes of the dog's clinical signs. Various treatment options are available in order to help dogs live a more comfortable life. The prognosis is excellent for those dogs that do not show any clinical signs associated with their distichiae. For dogs with mild clinical signs, the likelihood that the condition can be managed with conservative treatment is good.
Ectopic cilia can be an irritating eye problem for many dogs. Growing abnormally through the conjunctiva, they come into contact with the cornea and can cause chronic discomfort to the eye and corneal ulceration. Surgery is necessary to help to correct the problem in order to help dogs live a more comfortable life. The prognosis for surgical correction of this condition is generally good.
Your dog has been scheduled for an endoscopic examination. The purpose of this procedure is to help your veterinarian make a diagnosis of the disease that has been causing your pet's clinical signs of vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal pain or swelling or loss of appetite.
Ectropion, or outward rolling of the eyelid, can cause problems such as recurring conjunctivitis and drying out of the cornea. The clinical signs are a 'sagging' or 'rolling outward' lower eyelid. A thick mucoid discharge often accumulates along the eyelid margin. Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. Acquired ectropion can occur in any dog at any age. Testing for hypothyroidism and for antibodies against certain muscle fibers may be done if looking for underlying causes. The treatment for mild ectropion generally consists of medical therapy; if the condition is severe, surgical correction can be performed to shorten the eyelids.
Entropion, or rolling in of the eyelids, is seen in many breeds and is considered a hereditary disorder. Most dogs will squint, hold the eye shut, and tear excessively (epiphora) though some patients will develop a mucoid discharge. Entropion can cause additional eye problems, such as corneal ulcers, perforations, or development of pigment on the cornea interfering with vision and can be chronically irritating to the dog. Entropion is corrected with surgery.
An FHO, or femoral head ostectomy, is a surgical procedure that aims to restore pain-free mobility to a diseased or damaged hip, by removing the head and neck of the femur. An FHO restores mobility to the hip by removing the head of the femur. Active dogs often experience better results with FHO than less-active dogs.
FCP is a developmental defect of one of the coronoid processes. A genetic component is thought to be involved and males appear to be more commonly affected. It is usually seen in large breed dogs such as Bernese Mountain Dogs, Golden Retrievers, Labrador Retrievers, Rottweilers, and German Shepherds. Lameness usually develops in the foreleg of young dogs. Several radiographs of each affected leg, with the leg in different positions, are necessary in order to get an accurate assessment of various bones and joints. Surgery is the treatment of choice for this condition, and its aim is to remove any abnormal cartilage or bone in an attempt to return the joint to a more normal anatomy and function.
Ear hematomas are a collection of blood, either fresh or clotted, within the pinna. Excessive or violent shaking causes one or more blood vessels to break, resulting in bleeding into the space between the ear cartilage and skin on the inner surface of the ear. There is often an underlying cause which must be treated but additionally, surgery or drainage should be done to help relieve discomfort. Failure to treat will lead to a misshapen ear.