Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or chronic bronchitis is a slowly progressing inflammatory condition of the lower airways. It most often affects small or toy breeds from middle-aged and senior dogs. The most common sign is a chronic dry cough. Exercise intolerance, collapsing, wheezing, or noisy breathing may develop as the condition worsens. Airborne irritants/allergens, chronic respiratory infections, obesity and dental disease are implicated in triggering the disease. Diagnosis can be made by ruling out other causes of cough through a minimum diagnostic database, radiographs, bronchoscopy, and cytology and culture of lung material obtained through tracheal wash or bronchoalveolar lavage. Treatment aims to minimize inducing factors including weight loss and avoidance of environmental irritants, as well as employing medications such as corticosteroids and bronchodilators. If using long-term, these medications are most often given using metered dose inhalers to manage the disease successfully.
Clostridial enterotoxicosis is a complex and poorly understood syndrome characterized by diarrhea that is associated with the bacteria Clostridium perfringens (CP). It is associated with either acute or chronic diarrhea. Clostridial enterotoxicosis is not caused by the bacteria directly, but rather by a toxin produced by the bacteria. Most cases of intestinal bacterial overgrowth are treated on an outpatient basis using antibiotics, nutrition, and probiotics.
The general condition of your dog's skin and coat are good indicators of its health. A healthy coat should be shiny and smooth, not brittle or coarse, and healthy skin should be supple and clear, not greasy, flaky or bumpy. Selective breeding has led to the development of dogs with a myriad of different coat characteristics requiring varying grooming needs. In order to maintain the skin and hair in a healthy state, your dog also requires a properly balanced diet.
Colitis simply refers to inflammation of the large intestine or colon. Colitis is most commonly used to describe diarrhea or loose stools associated with the large bowel. Large bowel diarrhea is also used synonymously with colitis.
Color dilution alopecia (CDA) is a genetic recessive inherited condition that causes patches of hair thinning or loss, and may also include flaky and/or itchy skin. The condition is associated with individuals who have what is called dilute color, and is most commonly seen in dogs with a blue or fawn coat.
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a term that refers to the heart's inability to pump adequate blood to the body. There are many causes of CHF in dogs. The two most common causes are mitral valve insufficiency (MVI), or a leaky mitral valve, the valve between the left atrium and the let ventricle and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
The conjunctiva is the lining tissue that covers the globe of the eye and lines the eyelids and the third eyelid. Conjunctivitis refers to inflammation of this tissue. The most common clinical signs of conjunctivitis include discharge from the eyes, squinting or excessive blinking, and redness or swelling around the eyes. Conjunctivitis often involves both eyes, but only one eye may be affected in certain conditions. The most common causes of conjunctivitis include bacterial and viral infections, allergies, hereditary conditions, and tumors. The main goal of diagnosis is to determine if the conjunctivitis is a primary or secondary problem, if there is additional disease or damage to the eye, if the condition is allergic, or if it involves the sclera. In order to differentiate many of these conditions, a complete and detailed ophthalmic examination must be performed. Treatment is directed at the specific cause and may include both topical and oral medications. Most dogs have an excellent prognosis in most cases of conjunctivitis.