One of the more common uroliths in the dog is composed of calcium oxalate crystals. Current research indicates that urine high in calcium, citrates, or oxalates and is acidic predisposes a pet to developing calcium oxalate urinary crystals and stones. The most common signs that a dog has bladder stones are hematuria and dysuria. The only way to be sure that a bladder stone is made of calcium oxalate is to have the stone analyzed at a veterinary referral laboratory. Unfortunately, calcium oxalate stones have a somewhat high rate of recurrence, despite careful attention to diet and lifestyle.
Campylobacter infection or Campylobacterosis is a bacterial intestinal infection cased by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter upsaliensis. It is a major cause of human bacterial enteritis although it is considered a normal bacterium in the intestinal tract of many animals and birds.
Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is not the same virus as SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19. Canine coronavirus disease, known as CCoV, is a highly infectious intestinal infection in dogs, especially puppies. CCoV does not affect people, and causes gastrointestinal problems as opposed to respiratory disease. Crowding and unsanitary conditions lead to coronavirus transmission. Dogs may be carriers of the disease for up to six months (180 days) after infection. The most typical sign associated with canine coronavirus is diarrhea, typically sudden in onset, which may be accompanied by lethargy and decreased appetite. There is no specific treatment for coronavirus. Canine coronavirus vaccines are available. This vaccine will only work for the CCoV type of coronavirus.
Canine influenza virus (CIV) is primarily the result of two influenza strains: H3N8 from an equine origin and H3N2 from an avian origin. Both of these strains were previously known to infect species other than dogs, but are now able to infect and spread among dogs. The canine influenza virus is easy to transmit.
The intervertebral discs allow movement in the spine and act as shock absorbers between the vertebrae. If the disc degenerates or is damaged in some way, the disc may bulge and put pressure on the spinal cord and/or the roots of the spinal nerves that come off the sides of the spinal cord. This pressure can cause symptoms ranging from severe pain to weakness to paralysis. There are several breeds that experience a higher frequency of the condition. The severity of a dog’s clinical signs depends upon several factors. Conservative management with pain relievers and anti-inflammatory medication is recommended with a gradual onset of clinical signs or when clinical signs are limited to pain and/or a mildly wobbly gait. Surgery is recommended when there are repeated episodes of neck pain, when neck pain is severe, when there are severe nervous system deficits, or when the dog has not responded to conservative treatment.
Cervical stenosis is caused by compression of the spinal cord, usually at the base of the neck. Although the spinal cord compression occurs in the neck, the hind legs are often affected first. In severe cases, the dog may suddenly develop total paralysis of all four limbs. The condition is most prevalent in Great Danes and Doberman Pinschers. It is diagnosed by myelography, CT scans, or MRI. Anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics may relieve the initial discomfort, but the greatest chance of success lies with surgery. Most pets enjoy a relatively normal lifestyle following surgery.
Chronic degenerative valve disease (CVD) is a consequence of degeneration of the valves between the atrium and ventricle on both the right and left side of the heart. The changes in the valves stops them from forming a tight seal between the atrium and ventricle when the heart is squeezing or pumping. This causes the valves to leak blood backwards into the upper chambers, and an abnormal sound called a heart murmur.
The kidneys have many functions. They principally act to remove waste products from the blood stream, regulate the levels of certain essential minerals such potassium and sodium, conserve water and produce urine. The kidneys have a large amount of spare capacity to perform their various functions so at least two-thirds of the kidneys must be dysfunctional before any clinical signs are seen.