Cytology is the microscopic examination of cells that have been collected from body tissues. Fine needle aspiration (FNA), also called fine needle biopsy, is the most frequently used technique in cytology. It is typically used to sample lumps and bumps on the body; however, it is also used to evaluate internal organs and body fluids. A sterile fine gauge needle is attached to an empty syringe and is introduced into the tissue. The tissue cells or fluid are aspirated when the plunger of the syringe is drawn back while the needle is held in the tissue. The cells are placed onto a clean glass slide, dried, and stained with special dyes. The cells are then examined under a microscope. Cytology by FNA does not always provide a diagnosis but contributes valuable information that ultimately leads to a final diagnosis.
A Holter monitor is a portable device used to continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and can be an effective and non-invasive way to help your veterinarian evaluate heart conditions especially when trying to determine the cause of fainting episodes or evaluate treatment. Many dogs are not bothered by it and ignore its presence.
Calcium is a mineral that is found in small quantities throughout the body. It is plays an important role in such varied and vital functions as muscle contraction, transmission of nerve impulses, blood clotting, and bone growth. Hypercalcemia is when the level of calcium in the blood is higher than normal.
Calcium is a mineral that is found in small quantities throughout the body. It plays an important role in such diverse and vital functions including muscle contraction, transmission of nerve impulses, blood clotting, and bone growth. Hypocalcemia means that the level of calcium in the blood is abnormally low.
Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by a type of bacteria called Leptospira. The disease causes serious damage to the kidney and liver, and may be fatal in severe cases. Severely infected dogs show signs of lethargy, depression, loss of appetite, vomiting, fever, and increased thirst and urination. Dogs may develop jaundice. There are several tests for diagnosing leptospirosis, but the two most common ones are the DNA-PCR test and the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Infection can be diagnosed with either test, but each has weaknesses, and in some situations both tests may be needed to reach a diagnosis.
Pets that have been diagnosed with epilepsy are usually prescribed one or more medications to prevent convulsions or seizures. Careful monitoring of epileptic pets is necessary, not only to make sure the dose of the medicine is right, but also to ensure there are no problems related to the long-term use of the medication. The most important thing to do is follow your veterinarian's instructions closely and give the medication regularly and consistently. This will ensure that the value reported on the blood test is reliable.