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  • Antibiotic resistant bacterial infections are bacterial infections that are minimally or no longer responsive to commonly used antibiotics. In other words, these bacteria are resistant to antibiotics - they cannot be killed and their growth cannot be stopped. An infection that does not respond appropriately to an antibiotic is suggestive of an antibiotic resistant bacterial infection.

  • Antibodies are specialized proteins, also called immunoglobulins that are primarily found in the bloodstream. They are produced by specialized white blood cells called plasma cells, a form of lymphocyte.

  • Anxiety wraps are vest-like garments designed to calm anxious dogs. The vests work under the theory that pressure applied to the dog's torso causes a calming effect similar to swaddling a crying infant or hugging a distressed person.

  • Aortic stenosis is a heart disease that is present at birth. Dogs affected with aortic stenosis have a narrowing at the aortic valve of the heart. This narrowing forces the heart to work abnormally hard to force blood through the narrowed valve. The clinical signs of aortic stenosis vary depending on how severe the stenosis is; some dogs remain asymptomatic throughout their life, while other dogs begin showing clinical signs at an early age and can experience sudden death. The treatment of aortic stenosis depends upon the severity of the condition.

  • An aortic thromboembolism results from a blood clot that is dislodged and travels within the aorta, becoming lodged in a distant location. This causes severely reduced blood flow to the tissues receiving blood from that particular part of the aorta, leading to decreased oxygen in the tissues. Aortic thromboembolism is a rare occurrence in dogs.

  • Topical ear medications are often necessary to adequately treat inflammatory or infectious ear conditions. Instilling ear medications into your dog's ears can be a challenging or potentially difficult task, especially if they are uncomfortable. Have patience and contact your veterinarian if you are having difficulties.

  • The proper administration of eye medications is essential for your pet's prompt recovery. Make sure you have carefully read the label and understand the prescription instructions. If you have any questions, contact your veterinarian for clarification.

  • Applying eye ointments to your dog's eye(s) can be a challenging or easy task. The proper administration of eye medications is essential for your dog’s prompt recovery. It is important to use the medication as directed for the full duration and contact your veterinarian if you have problems. The tips and instructions in this handout may make administering your dog’s eye ointment easier.

  • Applying topical medications to your pet can sometimes be a challenge. The information provided in this handout may help make treating your pet easier - for both of you.

  • Primary vaccination is essential in order to prevent the once common puppy diseases that caused high levels of fatality from returning. However, recent research indicates that not all vaccines require yearly boosters. o establish whether boosters are necessary for your pet, blood tests to measure the amount of antibodies (antibody titers) are sometimes recommended. Unfortunately, these tests are often more expensive than revaccination and may be stressful to your dog.