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  • The anal sacs are two small pouches located on either side of the anus at approximately the four o'clock and eight o'clock positions. The walls of the sac produce a foul smelling fluid which is released whenever the dog passes a bowel movement. Bacteria that are normally present in the feces can readily travel up the ducts and enter the sacs resulting in infection. The first sign is often scooting or dragging the rear along the ground. Treatment for impaction involves expressing or emptying the sacs. Antibiotics are often prescribed. Most dogs will require pain relief medications for several days until the swelling and inflammation have subsided. In recurrent or severe cases, surgical removal of the sacs may be necessary.

  • Anal glands are located on either side of the anus and normally produce secretions that are pushed when feces is evacuated from the rectum. An anal sac tumor is a tumor of made up of cells originating from the glands of the anal sac. These tumors can spread and therefore staging is recommended prior to surgery. To diagnose these tumors, a fine needle aspirate can be placed from the outside and into the anal sac to retrieve cells. After surgery, chemotherapy may be considered. Radiation therapy has also been considered as a primary or secondary treatment option.

  • An anaphylactic reaction or anaphylaxis is an immediate hypersensitivity reaction to a foreign substance, especially a foreign protein. Any foreign substance can produce an anaphylactic reaction. Clinical signs are dependent on the route of exposure (mouth, skin, inhalation, injection, etc.), the amount of antigen and the level of the pet's IgE response. An anaphylactic reaction is a medical emergency and immediate treatment is required.

  • Anaplasmosis is a disease that affects dogs, but can also affect people. It rarely affects cats. Multiple species of ticks can transmit the disease. Diagnosis is relatively simple and treatment is effective.

  • Hailing from Turkey, the Anatolian Shepherd Dog was bred to guard livestock. The breed is not well-known outside of his native land, except to fanciers. Guarding instincts are highly developed and can be misplaced if owners are not aware of this.

  • Anemia has a wide variety of causes and appropriate treatments based on the specific cause. Signs of anemia include the loss of the normal pink color of the gums, loss of energy or stamina, weight loss, labored breathing, loss of appetite, a faster than normal heart rate, or signs of blood loss. Several tests are performed to diagnose anemia and additional testing may be required to determine the specific cause. Toxins, infectious diseases, or cancer are some possible causes. Prognosis is variable depending on the underlying cause and how early anemia is diagnosed.

  • The word anesthesia comes from the Greek meaning "lack of sensation". Anesthesia is accomplished by administering drugs that depress nerve function. With general anesthesia, the patient is made unconscious for a short period. During this unconscious state, there is muscular relaxation and a complete loss of pain sensation.

  • Anisocoria is a condition in which the pupils of the eyes are different sizes; in other words one pupil is larger than the other. Anisocoria is a sign of an underlying disease condition, therefore there are several different causes. Your veterinarian will begin by conducting a physical examination of your dog, including a detailed examination of the structures of the eye. The treatment and prognosis of anisocoria depend entirely on the underlying cause of the condition, and treatment will be tailored specifically to the diagnosis.

  • A dog that is not wanting to eat or is not eating, is a dog who has a potentially life-threatening medical condition. Many conditions can lead to the inability of your dog to eat or for your dog to lose his appetite completely. It is important to find the underlying cause so that an appropriate treatment plan can be created. Appetite stimulants may be prescribed and in some cases a feeding tube may be placed by your veterinarian. Decreased food intake or any change in eating habits warrants investigation by your veterinarian.

  • Unfortunately, anthrax has been threatened as a method of bio-terrorism and dogs can be infected, as can most mammals. Different animals have different levels of susceptibility to anthrax infection. Herbivores (animals that eat plants, such as cattle, sheep, and horses) are the most susceptible to anthrax.