One of the more common bladder stones found in dogs is composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (also known as struvite stones). Struvite bladder stones usually form as a complication of a bladder infection caused by bacteria, and if the urine becomes exceptionally concentrated and acidic. The most common signs that a dog has bladder stones are hematuria and dysuria. There are three primary treatment strategies for struvite bladder stones: 1) feeding a special diet to dissolve the stone(s), 2) non-surgical removal by urohydropropulsion and 3) surgical removal. Dogs that have experienced struvite bladder stones will often be fed a therapeutic diet for life.
Summer is a great time to get outdoors and enjoy nature and the warm sunshine, especially with your pet. Pets are inquisitive creatures and love to investigate their surroundings. Unfortunately, this trait can lead pets down the path of injury and illness. The following information will help you to avoid many summer dangers that can affect your pet.
Telehealth is a broad term that refers to the use of telecommunications to provide health-related services. Telehealth services can be delivered by a variety of methods including telephone, text messaging, internet chat, and videoconferencing. Teletriage is the act of performing triage remotely, via telephone or internet and helps determine the urgency of your pet’s medical concern. Telemedicine refers to the practice of medicine at a distance. In the context of veterinary medicine, telemedicine refers to a veterinarian formulating a diagnosis and treatment plan for your pet without an in-person examination. Telemedicine is typically only permitted within the context of an existing Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship. Given the current COVID-19 pandemic and social/physical distancing requirements however, some federal and local governments have relaxed the requirements surrounding telemedicine.
Toad poisoning (or toxicity) occurs when a dog is exposed to the toxins secreted by certain species of toads. The two most common species of toads that cause poisonings in the United States are the cane or marine toad and the Colorado River or Sonoran desert toad. While there are toads in Canada that secrete toxic substances, their effects are much less severe than the toxins secreted by the cane or Sonoran desert toads. Death can occur quickly and immediate treatment is required.
Urate bladder stones are most commonly the result of a genetic abnormality seen in breeds such as Dalmatians. Other causes of urate bladder stones include liver diseases such as portosystemic shunts. The most common signs that a dog has bladder stones are hematuria and dysuria. There are two primary treatment strategies for treating urate bladder stones in dogs: non-surgical removal by urohydropropulsion, and surgical removal. Dogs that have experienced urate bladder stones will often be fed a therapeutic diet for life. Dogs with liver disease will need to be treated appropriately prior to addressing urate bladder stone management.
Uveitis is an inflammation of one or more of the structures making up the uvea. It can be very painful and can lead to blindness. It may be a primary condition or a sign of an underlying condition. The usual signs of uveitis are severe pain with an intense reddening of the visible parts of the eye. The eye is usually kept shut and most dogs avoid bright lights. Diagnosis will include a thorough physical exam along with other tests to determine if there is an underlying condition. Treatment is initially aimed at reducing inflammation and providing pain relief and may include other treatments an underlying condition is identified.
Vitamin D poisoning occurs when a dog ingests a toxic dose of vitamin D. A common source of vitamin D poisoning is when a dog accidentally ingests rodenticides containing vitamin D. Another source of vitamin D poisoning is the accidental ingestion of certain human medications.
Xanthine bladder stones are an uncommon type of urinary stone that can occur in both dogs and cats. Xanthine is produced when certain types of proteins are broken down within the body; while most dogs further breakdown xanthine to other substances that are more easily excreted, some pets are deficient in an enzyme that is required for this breakdown to occur. These pets develop elevated levels of xanthine in the urine, resulting in xanthine stones forming within the urinary tract. Xanthine urinary tract stones are typically removed surgically. Affected dogs require long-term care to prevent recurrence of xanthine urinary tract stones.